Announcing 5 New Releases: The Celtic World, Why You Are Who You Are: Investigations into Human Personality, Dog Training 101, Capitalism vs. Socialism: Comparing Economic Systems, and American Military History: From Colonials to Counterinsurgents
Announcing 5 New Releases: The Celtic World, Why You Are Who You Are: Investigations into Human Personality, Dog Training 101, Capitalism vs. Socialism: Comparing Economic Systems, and American Military History: From Colonials to Counterinsurgents
  • The Celtic World
    Course  |  The Celtic World

    Professor Jennifer Paxton, Ph.D.

    Available Formats: Video Download, Audio Download, DVD, CD

    With The Celtic World, discover the incredible story of the Celtic-speaking peoples, whose art, language, and culture once spread from Ireland to Austria. This series of 24 enlightening lectures explains the traditional historical view of who the Celts were, then contrasts it with brand-new evidence from DNA analysis and archaeology that totally changes our perspective on where the Celts came from. By bringing a new understanding to long-held beliefs about the Celts, this course will broaden your idea of what “Celtic” really means.

    View Lecture List (24)

    With The Celtic World, discover the incredible story of the Celtic-speaking peoples, whose art, language, and culture once spread from Ireland to Austria. This series of 24 enlightening lectures explains the traditional historical view of who the Celts were, then contrasts it with brand-new evidence from DNA analysis and archaeology that totally changes our perspective on where the Celts came from. By bringing a new understanding to long-held beliefs about the Celts, this course will broaden your idea of what “Celtic” really means.

    24 Lectures  |  The Celtic World
    Lecture Titles (24)
    • 1
      Who Are the Celts?
      Professor Paxton begins this lively history course by examining the common preconceptions about Celtic identity—before smashing them to bits. The first lecture paints the initial brushstrokes on the gargantuan canvas of this European culture most widely perceived as Scottish and Irish while promising much more. x
    • 2
      The Celts and the Classical World
      Our earliest written records of the Celts come from Italy, Greece, and Spain, dating as far back as the 6th century B.C. Although scholarly theories about the Celts’ migration throughout Europe conflict, the foundation of our understanding of their origins is laid bare here, peppered with several curious historic anecdotes. x
    • 3
      Celtic Art and Artifacts
      Archaeological studies of Celtic artifacts have woven a rich tapestry of their millennia-old society and its La Tène art style. Learn about war trumpets, gold necklaces, ornate helmets, and other recovered objects from around Europe to build an image of this ever-adapting culture and its connections to the classical world. x
    • 4
      Celtic Languages in the Ancient World
      The discovery of Celtic inscriptions on the western coast of Spain suggests the possible development of a common language along maritime Celtic trade routes, revolutionizing studies of Celtic origins and migration. The long-standing theory of Central European Celtic origins may die out thanks to new linguistic evidence. x
    • 5
      Caesar and the Gauls
      Several centuries of violent combat against Celtic-controlled Gaul made northern Italy and southern France a dangerous neighborhood for the Romans. Hannibal, Gaius Marius, and Spartacus are just some of the famous figures of world history who encounter the Gauls in this lecture centered on Julius Caesar's wars against the Gauls. x
    • 6
      Celtic Religion and the Druids
      Celtic religious beliefs included divination, reincarnation, and human sacrifice. Along with these practices, discover the ancient religious figures known as druids who served as holy men, soothsayers, and even lawyers. Enjoy this insight into the Celtic version of one constant that appears in all civilizations—the sacred. x
    • 7
      Celtic Britain and Roman Britain
      Professor Paxton uses the theory of trade-based migration to first explain the arrival of the Celts influence in Britain before the arrival of the Romans. Then she details the exciting struggle between the Celts and the Romans over Britain, untangling the web of history on the island during the first and second centuries A.D. x
    • 8
      Celts and Picts in Scotland
      With a Romanized southern Britain, what was life like in Scotland? Meet the warring tribes of Picts that ruled North Britain, with the Irish to the west and Angles moving in from the southeast. Highlights include the ancient Pictish tongue and the truth about William “Braveheart” Wallace and all that blue paint. x
    • 9
      Prehistoric Ireland and the Celts
      An early Irish text called The Book of Invasions is the basis for this truly unique look back at the origins of Ireland and its people. In equal parts weird, fascinating, and humorous, this text tells of one-armed pirate giants, descendants of Noah, a tribe of sorcerers, and six full-scale takeovers of Ireland. x
    • 10
      Celtic Britain after Rome
      North and west of what today is England, where the Romans held far less influence, a paradoxical era of both peaceful immigration and rebellion added to the melting pot of Britain in the first millennium A.D. Discover Cornwall, Wales, and parts of Scotland with a quick appearance of one of Britain's noblest legends: King Arthur. x
    • 11
      Brittany and Galicia: Fringe of the Fringe
      See how both France and Spain welcomed immigrants from a rapidly de-Romanizing Britain. Brittany became a thriving Celtic province that maintained its autonomy through the Middle Ages, while Galicia mostly lost its Celtic identity until a revival of interest in modern times. x
    • 12
      Celtic Churches
      The melding of pagan religions and Christianity is a compelling tale. St. Patrick’s legendary priesthood and missionary work are discussed, as is the Christian saint Brigid, who was remolded as a nature deity to impress the recently converted Irish. Learn how Irish monks brought Latin learning back to the European continent and “saved civilization.” x
    • 13
      Celtic Art and Insular Art
      Native Britons copied much of the art style prominent on the continent, complicating the process of defining Celtic art, but Professor Paxton unties this intricate knot. Observe some of Ireland's most breathtaking religious and secular art pieces, from the Book of Kells to the Tara Brooch. x
    • 14
      Medieval Irish Literature
      The early Irish prized literary skill just as much as prowess in warfare, and lords were judged by the quality of poet they could hire. This lecture gives a glimpse into the diverse genres of Irish literature, from epics about mythological heroes to exciting tales designed to warn kings about the dangers of ruling unjustly. x
    • 15
      Celtic Women, Families, and Social Structure
      Irish society treated all disputes as civil suits between families—so if your cousin killed someone, you had to pay some of the damages, which varied with the social status of the victim. Gain a fascinating insight into the hierarchical structure of this period and women’s roles in society as well. x
    • 16
      The Irish Sea World: Celts and Vikings
      By the turn of the first millennium A.D., we find ample evidence of Viking presence in both Ireland and Scotland. From raids to intermarriages, the Celtic-Scandinavian relationship is a stranger-than-fiction love-hate saga any history buff can appreciate. x
    • 17
      English Invasions of Wales and Ireland
      Get a glimpse of the life of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn, one of the most influential Welsh rulers, who briefly unified the country 1,000 years ago. Uncover the shocking truth of Henry II's invasion of Ireland and its causes as well as anti-Irish propaganda and the development of cruel stereotypes that influenced English views of the Irish down to the modern period. x
    • 18
      Scotland from Macbeth to Braveheart
      How do Shakespeare and Hollywood stack up against the truth in some of the fictional accounts of Scotland's history? Learn about the historical Macbeth and William Wallace (of Braveheart fame), as well as the famous ruler Robert Bruce, who secured Scottish independence from the invading English. x
    • 19
      Politics and Literature in Wales
      Unveil the turbulent story of English conquest in Wales with this insightful glimpse into Welsh history that includes the unfortunate influence of misplaced loyalty to family that cost the Welsh their sovereignty forever. Then, look at Welsh literature, particularly the wonderful but enigmatic myths of the Mabinogi and the witty poems of Dafydd ap Gwilym. x
    • 20
      The Tudor Conquest of Ireland
      After Henry VIII denounced Catholicism, England tried repeatedly to bring Ireland into its fold. With Catholicism and Protestantism at odds, Irish chieftains were caught in the middle: the English offered land deals in exchange for shedding their Irish culture and heritage. Witness the aftermath when a historic powder keg exploded, with devastating losses on both sides. x
    • 21
      (Re)Discovering the Celts
      Just as the Tudors were conquering Ireland, linguistic studies of the Celtic languages began and a new fascination with the Celts slowly emerged. Witness the resurgence of mythological Celtic tales and the revival of the tartan after it was briefly banned by the British; see how fascination with the druids and Welsh bards created a newly confident Welsh identity. x
    • 22
      The Gaelic Revival in Ireland
      Compared to the fun-loving and historically focused revival of Celtic culture in Scotland and Wales, Ireland's Celtic revival had more of a political edge. Ancient Irish mythology played a surprising role in the growth of Irish nationalism that led to conflict and ultimately to independence from Britain. x
    • 23
      Celtic Music and Dance
      Celtic instruments come to life in this lecture. Take a music lesson and learn about the carnyx, a war trumpet; the bodhrán, a hand drum; and the crwth, a lyre played with a bow. Treat your ears to samples of these and beautiful Irish singing, then watch clips of delightful Celtic dances based on classic traditions. x
    • 24
      The Celts Today
      In the final lecture, end your 2,500-year journey with the Celts by considering the Celtic nations in the 21st century. Bilingualism, modern Celtic pop culture, and renewed nationalist groups pushing for political autonomy are merely the tip of the iceberg in this satisfying conclusion to a truly epic history of culture, politics, and warfare. x
  • Why You Are Who You Are: Investigations into Human Personality

    Professor Mark Leary, Ph.D.

    Available Formats: Video Download, Audio Download, DVD, CD

    What makes you different from other people? And what makes you—sometimes—the same? Designed as a fascinating, accessible scientific inquiry, the 24 lectures of Why You Are Who You Are: Investigations into Human Personality, will have you thinking about your personality in a way that leaves you enriched and better informed about what makes you, you.

    View Lecture List (24)

    What makes you different from other people? And what makes you—sometimes—the same? Designed as a fascinating, accessible scientific inquiry, the 24 lectures of Why You Are Who You Are: Investigations into Human Personality, will have you thinking about your personality in a way that leaves you enriched and better informed about what makes you, you.

    24 Lectures  |  Why You Are Who You Are: Investigations into Human Personality
    Lecture Titles (24)
    • 1
      What Is Personality?
      In this introductory lecture, ground your understanding of personality in the concept of “proportion-of-variability,” which tells us how strongly related a particular personality characteristic is to behaviors, emotions, or other characteristics. As an example, you’ll consider a case study of the causes of delinquent behavior in teenage boys. x
    • 2
      Key Traits: Extraversion and Neuroticism
      There are five key traits that best help us understand a person's behavior. Here, explore the two traits that give you the broadest picture of what a person is like. The first: extraversion, or your level of sociability. The second: neuroticism, the degree to which you experience negative emotions. x
    • 3
      Are You Agreeable? Conscientious? Open?
      Examine the three remaining building blocks of personality. You'll learn about agreeableness, the degree to which you have a positive or negative orientation toward others; conscientiousness, the degree to which you're responsible; and openness, or your receptivity to new experiences and idea. Plus, consider a sixth personality trait that's starting to get attention. x
    • 4
      Basic Motives Underlying Behavior
      What motivates you to do the things you do each and every day? Professor Leary explores three motives that instigate and energize people's behavior: the motive to interact with other people, the motive to achieve and be successful, and the motive to influence other people. x
    • 5
      Intrapersonal Motives
      There are other motives that underlie behavior—ones that don’t involve getting anything from the outside world. What are the benefits of these motives? After considering the Freudian roots of the subject, learn about three fascinating intrapersonal motives: for psychological consistency, for self-esteem, and for authenticity. x
    • 6
      Positive and Negative Emotionality
      A large part of who you are as a person depends on the kinds of emotions you experience as you walk through life. In this lecture, look at our general tendencies to experience positive and negative emotions. What, exactly, are emotions? What leads some people to have more positive – or negative – emotions than others? x
    • 7
      Differences in Emotional Experiences
      In addition to the general tendency to feel good and bad, we also differ in the degree to which we experience specific emotions such as anger, joy, guilt, and sadness. These tendencies, too, are an important part of your personality. As you'll learn, they help explain why different people respond to the same event in different ways. x
    • 8
      Values and Moral Character
      When we talk about someone's character, we're referring to the degree to which that person tends to behave in ethical (or unethical) ways. In this illuminating lecture, take a look at moral aspects of personality from four critical angles: values, moral foundations, virtues, and character strengths. x
    • 9
      Traits That Shape How You Think
      Turn your attention to cognitive aspects of personality: characteristics related to people's styles of thinking. Here, Professor Leary focuses on four cognitive characteristics that involve differences in the degree to which people are curious, make decisions quickly, critically evaluate their beliefs, and enjoy thinking. x
    • 10
      Beliefs about the World and Other People
      You are who you are partly because of the beliefs that you hold. Discover several big, broad beliefs that function like personality traits. These include people's beliefs about human nature, fairness, and the beliefs and attitudes that underlie authoritarianism. x
    • 11
      Beliefs about Yourself
      Your beliefs about yourself have a dramatic impact on how you feel and behave. Take a closer look at four types of self-related beliefs: identity (who you think you are), self-efficacy (what you're capable of doing), self-esteem (your evaluation of yourself), and self-compassion (how you think about yourself when bad things happen). x
    • 12
      Personality and Social Relationships
      Some of the most important differences among people involve their ways of relating to others. First, examine the differences in people's attachment styles. Then, consider the tactics people use to persuade and influence others (with a focus on Machiavellians). Finally, explore three aspects of empathy: cognitive empathy, emotional empathy, and empathic concern. x
    • 13
      Consistency and Stability of Personality
      People obviously don't act the same way all the time, and personalities do change over the course of a life (at least within limits). Yet people do show stability in how they tend to think, feel, and behave. In this lecture, learn about the complexities that make personality both stable and changeable. x
    • 14
      Evolution and Human Nature
      The fact that certain personality characteristics can be seen in almost everybody probably reflects evolutionary processes. Learn why some aspects of behavior became part of a shared human personality; how some personality features evolved differently for men and women; and why people who live in different environments may develop different personalities. x
    • 15
      Personality and the Brain
      All differences we see in people's personalities are based on differences in what's happening somewhere in their brains. Unpack research being done on the neuroscience of personality, with a focus on four aspects of anatomy and physiology that involve brain regions, neurotransmitters, hormones, and bodily rhythms. x
    • 16
      Genetic Influences on Personality
      Take a closer look at the ways in which the genes you inherited from your parents have contributed to your personality. Topics in this lecture include heritability studies; the role genes play in people's attitudes; and how genes can change our environment in ways that then affect our personality. x
    • 17
      Learning to Be Who You Are
      Professor Leary explains four learning processes that influence how people's personalities turn out: classical conditioning, operant conditioning, observational learning, and personal experience. It's a lecture that'll change how you think about the ways learning has helped make you who you are. x
    • 18
      How Culture Influences Personality
      How might your personality have turned out differently if you'd grown up in a culture different from the one you grew up in? Explore this question by looking at several dimensions on which cultures differ: individualism versus collectivism, power distance, agentic versus communal orientations, and uncertainty avoidance. x
    • 19
      Nonconscious Aspects of Personality
      Freud believed that much of what influences our behaviors occurs outside our conscious awareness. To understand people’s personalities, we have to consider unconscious processes—the topic of this lecture. What is our nonconscious? How can we determine someone’s nonconscious motives? How does this idea relate to behaviors like procrastination? x
    • 20
      Personality and Self-Control
      People differ in self-control, so understanding how we self-regulate is critical to understanding personality. After learning about the nature of self-regulation, examine the characteristics and skills that affect how well people control themselves. Then, learn important findings from studies of self-regulation in childhood and explore the relationship between self-regulation and impulsivity. x
    • 21
      When Personalities Become Toxic
      In the first of two lectures on the three broad clusters of personality disorders, consider the dramatic-emotional-erratic cluster, which includes the antisocial, borderline, histrionic, and narcissistic personality disorders. As you'll learn, these disorders all involve problems with emotional regulation and impulse control. x
    • 22
      Avoidance, Paranoia, and Other Disorders
      First, learn about a cluster of three personality disorders that involve excessive anxiety: the avoidant, dependent, and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Then, explore a cluster that involves eccentric behaviors and distorted thinking: the paranoid personality disorder, the schizoid personality disorder, and the schizotypical personality disorder. x
    • 23
      The Enigma of Being Yourself
      Should you try to always be yourself? Can you tell when you’re not being yourself? Professor Leary considers the possibility that authenticity has some serious problems as a psychological construct—that it’s either not what we assume it is, or that it’s not as important as we typically think. x
    • 24
      The Well-Adjusted Personality
      Conclude the course by drawing on much of what you've learned in the preceding lectures to look at the relationship between personality and healthy psychological adjustment. You'll learn the five key ingredients of adjustment, traits that are associated with good adjustment, and more. x
  • Dog Training 101
    Course  |  Dog Training 101

    Dog Trainer Jean Donaldson, Founder & Principal Instructor of the Academy for Dog Trainers

    Available Formats: Video Download, DVD

    To cut through the clutter and bring you a training method validated by the latest scientific research on dog behavior, we worked with Jean Donaldson, the founder and principal instructor of The Academy for Dog Trainers, to create a course that teaches you the whys of dog training basics, not just the hows. Over 24 packed lectures, Dog Training 101 brings you exclusive access to a trainer of dog trainers who delves into dog cognition, behavioral science, husbandry, and more, demystifying the popular and unsuccessful theories out there.

    View Lecture List (24)

    To cut through the clutter and bring you a training method validated by the latest scientific research on dog behavior, we worked with Jean Donaldson, the founder and principal instructor of The Academy for Dog Trainers, to create a course that teaches you the whys of dog training basics, not just the hows. Over 24 packed lectures, Dog Training 101 brings you exclusive access to a trainer of dog trainers who delves into dog cognition, behavioral science, husbandry, and more, demystifying the popular and unsuccessful theories out there.

    24 Lectures  |  Dog Training 101
    Lecture Titles (24)
    • 1
      The Principles of Dog Training
      Get an introduction to the importance of training dogs, both for owners and the dogs themselves. Through some powerful analogies, Professor Donaldson will put you in the mindset of your dog to show you why certain training methods don't work and others do. Learn the three key principles of dog training that will provide the foundation for every lesson moving forward. She'll also recommend some important tools to have on hand. x
    • 2
      Getting the Behavior: Training Mechanics
      Dig into the “software your dog comes bundled with” and discover how common psychological practices can help us train dogs to overcome their instinctual behaviors. Professor Donaldson defines terms you’ll be using throughout the training such as prompting, capturing, and shaping. Master the first basic obedience commands: sit and down. x
    • 3
      Getting the Behavior: Sit and Down
      Professor Donaldson provides alternatives for dogs who have trouble with sit and down. She then continues with fundamental obedience through recall, or coming when called, using classical—or Pavlovian—conditioning. She’ll also review the importance of choosing and using the appropriate verbal cues. x
    • 4
      Getting the Behavior: Prompting and Premack
      Get some valuable reassurance and reinforcements about continuing your training in a consistent manner as you take on the challenge of getting your dog to go down from a sit, down from a stand, sit from a down, and sit from a stand. You'll also tackle station and watch and evolve your recall from Pavlovian (rewards) to Premack (positive reinforcement). x
    • 5
      Getting the Behavior: Verbal Cues
      Reinforce the same obedience behaviors your dog has already learned but move from verbal cues to hand signals. Professor Donaldson will also introduce toggling to help your dog avoid getting stuck in a behavior pattern. x
    • 6
      Understanding Your Dog's Behavior
      Professor Donaldson reveals the fascinating evolution of dogs that provides insight into why dogs do many of the things they do. This foundation gives you the background to help train, or un-train, certain actions. You'll uncover fight/flight instincts, canine social structure, courtship and reproductive behaviors, and the characteristics and styles of dog play. x
    • 7
      Impulse Control: Leave It, Wait, Leash Walking
      One of the best ways to curb instincts in your dog is to instill impulse control. Professor Donaldson teaches you how to teach dogs to cool their jets with sit-stay, down-stay, leave it, wait, and loose leash walking. She'll also cover the three most important parameters in down-stay and sit-stay: distraction, distance, and duration. x
    • 8
      Impulse Control: Increasing Generalization
      Take your first set of impulse control trainings to the next level by adding in distractions and increasing the distance or duration. Professor Donaldson also provides some alternatives if you find the loose leash walk to be challenging. x
    • 9
      Impulse Control: Deepening Obedience
      Building on the previous two lessons, expand the impulse control techniques even further with more difficult distraction, distance, and duration challenges. x
    • 10
      Impulse Control: Cold Trials and Finishing
      By now your dog is figuring out that “good things come to those who wait” and is starting to work on impulse control without being told. At this point in training, your dog has also figured out that obedience is The Strategy to get what he wants. This empowering realization means your dog understands he can take charge and control the situation to get the outcome he wants, overcoming some of the basic instincts that used to guide his behaviors. x
    • 11
      Fear and Aggression Prevention
      Professor Donaldson defines fear or aggression versus just being upset and teaches you how to recognize these traits in dogs. She outlines the five mechanisms that drive fear and discusses a classification system that covers aggression to strangers, resource guarding, and intolerance of body handling, as well as suggestions for handling each behavior. x
    • 12
      Proofing Behavior across Contexts
      Start the proofing process, which means your dog will be proving he knows behaviors even in different conditions or environments. Professor Donaldson demonstrates how taking the same training regimen on the road can have different results and what to do to get over obstacles such as competing motivation, distractions, or problems with generalization. x
    • 13
      On the Road: Training in Public Spaces
      Professor Donaldson shows various techniques out in the field as she puts the wait command to the test at a dog park. Watch and learn as she adds in distraction, distance, and duration for more of a challenge. She provides valuable tips to help transition practicing the same lessons in an unfamiliar environment. x
    • 14
      Verbal Cues: Developing Discrimination
      Despite our best endeavors, dogs don’t understand our words—they guess. Learn how to overcome your dog’s attempt to guess what you want in order to get treats by recognizing and leveraging aggregate or cumulative reinforcement, recency, the order of events, or his own preferred behaviors. x
    • 15
      Tricks: Wave, Take a Bow, Spin, Heel
      Examine the difference between tricks and obedience. Explore why teaching tricks can be beneficial to your dog as you work through three types of trick training: non-transitive or simple actions, transitive, and behavior chains. By using the foundation of obedience training you've already established, you can teach old (and young) dogs new tricks. x
    • 16
      Tricks: Distance Drop, Frisk, Sit Pretty
      Professor Donaldson spends an entire lecture demonstrating how to train tricks including distance drop, fugitive frisk, and sit pretty. She explains that, from here, you can string these tricks together to make a chain of tricks, or use the same principles to train your dog to do any trick he is physically capable of doing. x
    • 17
      Building a Conditioned Emotional Response
      After a brief review of how respondent conditioning, also known as classical conditioning or Pavlovian conditioning, works, Professor Donaldson reveals tips for using this method to train your dog. She shares the rules for using conditioning and demonstrates how it works by conditioning a dog for having his teeth brushed. x
    • 18
      Husbandry: Handling and Object Conditioning
      Husbandry refers to the physical care we give our dogs such as feeding, grooming, health monitoring, medical care, and more. Professor Donaldson shows you how to use training to prep your dog for some of the aspects of care that he may not enjoy. x
    • 19
      Husbandry: Limb Handling and Toothbrushing
      Professor Donaldson helps you prepare your dog for unpleasant care, such as ear drops and working with their feet. In addition to helping your dog remain calm and allowing someone to examine his sensitive areas, this sort of exercise helps your dog learn to trust you. x
    • 20
      Puppies and Senior Dogs
      Contrary to the old cliché, you can teach old dogs new tricks—and new dogs old tricks. Professor Donaldson reviews the ages and stages of dog maturity and has tips for which training to start your puppies with and how to choose the right puppy socialization class. She provides insightful instructions on training older dogs as well, including how to consider any physical ailments they may have. x
    • 21
      Housetraining, Chewing, and Digging
      Professor Donaldson debunks a common myth about dog behavior. She discusses in depth the reasons dogs may have accidents and provides several ways to train your dog out of this behavior. She covers a number of techniques to curb common bad habits such as chewing and digging with distraction or alternatives. x
    • 22
      Crating and Alone Training
      There are many benefits to using a crate. They can aid in separation anxiety and give your dogs a place of their own to feel safe. Professor Donaldson demonstrates the benefits and reviews the options for choosing a crate and for getting your dog accustomed to one. x
    • 23
      Managing Barking
      Did you know there are five kinds of barking? Professor Donaldson examines the various reasons dogs bark and provides suggestions to train your dog out of this behavior. She also explains why this is one of the more frustrating areas to train, but by understanding the motivation for barking and applying consistent methods, you can more effectively and efficiently learn to work with ways to stop it. x
    • 24
      Training Challenges and Solutions
      When it comes to training, you must define what is keeping your dog from picking up what you are teaching; defining if your dog has what problems or why problems can alleviate frustration. Professor Donaldson explains how to motivate a dog and adjust your rate of reinforcement for these and a number of other common obstacles that may stand in his way. She also provides tips for transitioning out of training mode and into integrating what your dog has learned into common behaviors. x
  • Capitalism vs. Socialism: Comparing Economic Systems

    Professor Edward F. Stuart, Ph.D.

    Available Formats: Video Download, Audio Download, DVD, CD

    The illuminating 24 lectures of Capitalism vs. Socialism: Comparing Economic Systems will show you the many ways the most influential modern economic theories were developed, how they function (or don’t), and how they manage to operate both together and in opposition to each other, from the rise of Soviet communism to the future of the European Union and beyond.

    View Lecture List (24)

    The illuminating 24 lectures of Capitalism vs. Socialism: Comparing Economic Systems will show you the many ways the most influential modern economic theories were developed, how they function (or don’t), and how they manage to operate both together and in opposition to each other, from the rise of Soviet communism to the future of the European Union and beyond.

    24 Lectures  |  Capitalism vs. Socialism: Comparing Economic Systems
    Lecture Titles (24)
    • 1
      Gorbachev's Hello and the Soviet Goodbye
      Begin your foray into comparative economics with a look at the USSR in the final few years before its collapse and the restructuring known as perestroika, which led to an increased interest in the study of capitalism versus socialism in the U.S. Examine some of the major questions that shape economic systems and close with a brief overview of the goals and scope of the course. x
    • 2
      Adam Smith, Karl Marx, Keynes, and Friedman
      Meet four of the most influential economic thinkers in history: Adam Smith, Karl Marx, John Maynard Keyes, and Milton Friedman. As you examine their individual philosophies and influences across three centuries, you may be surprised by how many of their ideas overlap even as their philosophies differ. x
    • 3
      How to Argue GDP, Inflation, and Other Data
      From GDP and inflation to unemployment and standard of living, there is no one absolute measurement that determines the health of an economy. Get an overview of the different metrics for economic success and a general understanding of how they are calculated and interpreted—and why these data points can start more arguments than they resolve. x
    • 4
      British Revolution: Industry and Labor
      Travel to the birthplace of industrial capitalism: Great Britain in the 18th and 19th centuries. A fortuitous meeting of politics, technology, and economics would shape the future and give the world innovations like insurance, corporate ownership and investment, and extended payment systems. It would also inspire writers like Charles Dickens to reveal the horrifying social repercussions of unregulated industrialization. x
    • 5
      American Capitalism: Hamilton and Jefferson
      Modern capitalism may have been born in England, but America would be defined by it from the very beginning. Look at some of the paradoxes inherent in free market systems and how Protestant religious philosophy played a significant part in the direction of the economy. Then, see how founding figures like Hamilton and Jefferson set the course for American economic dominance in the years to come. x
    • 6
      Utopian Socialism to Amana Microwave Ovens
      The many opportunities and innovations of capitalism in the U.S. did not come without a cost. Religious and political thinkers alike turned to new solutions to alleviate the often horrible conditions many workers experienced, resulting in socialist projects that fell into two camps: utopian and scientific. Close with a look at the difficulties inherent in running socialist systems in a largely market economy. x
    • 7
      The Bolsheviks: Lenin, Trotsky, and Stalin
      Examine the ways Stalin sought to exercise complete control of the Soviet economy, focusing on his Five-Year Plan for production—an object lesson in the complexities of anticipating and satisfying the material needs of a society. Professor Stuart also gives you an eye-opening look at the ways economics and politics can feed off of one another. Or, in this case, starve each other. x
    • 8
      Soviet Planning and 1,000 Left-Foot Shoes
      Examine the ways Stalin sought to exercise complete control of the Soviet economy, focusing on his Five-Year Plan for production- an object lesson in the complexities of anticipating and satisfying the material needs of a society. Professor Stuart also gives you an eye-opening look at the ways economics and politics can feed off of one another. Or, in this case, starve each other. x
    • 9
      Economic Consequences of European Peace
      The end of World War I illustrates one of the iron laws of capitalism: upheavals in one part of the world have repercussions all around it. Understand how the Treaty of Versailles set up harsh terms for a depleted Germany and why shortsighted leadership from the Allied powers led to economic fallout and, eventually, the second World War. x
    • 10
      How FDR and Keynes Tried to Save Capitalism
      Was the stock market crash of 1929 the cause of the Great Depression? Find out why Black Tuesday was actually a symptom rather than a cause and trace the origins of the Depression in the U.S. to events and policies of the 1920s, both domestic and international. Then, look at the ways FDR applied the ideas of John Maynard Keynes to help America recover from economic devastation. x
    • 11
      Social Democracy in Europe
      In the wake of economic and social turmoil in the 19th century, some European countries sought to reform the capitalist system and make it more sustainable. Examine the different motives behind the reforms, understand the differences between public and private goods, and compare and contrast the myriad ways economies can blend capitalism and socialism. x
    • 12
      Sweden's Mixed Economy Model
      Called “The Third Way” by some economists, the economic system of Sweden is perhaps the best example of a philosophy that falls between the extremes of free market capitalism and government-controlled socialism. Professor Stuart explains the many factors that have contributed to Sweden’s relative economic success and what it can teach us about mixed economies. x
    • 13
      French Indicative Planning and Jean Monnet
      Discover why France, a latecomer to industrial capitalism, was vital in shaping influential socialist theories, and how centuries of political upheaval can leave distinct impressions on a nation's economic history. From the French Revolution to World War II and beyond, France is a strong example of the ways economies are shaped by both internal and external forces. x
    • 14
      British Labour Party and National Health
      The British economy has vacillated between privatization and nationalization over time. Here you will look at one of these shifts by first examining the socialist programs introduced by a post-World War II Labour Party government (including the National Health Service), followed by the Margaret Thatcher era of deregulations and privatizations. x
    • 15
      Social Welfare in Germany: Bismarck to Kohl
      Socialist policies are not limited to the realm of idealists and reformers. Germany under Otto von Bismarck shows how socialist policies like public education, unemployment benefits, and tax-funded healthcare can be used to create more efficient workforces. See how Bismarck's ideas were used to help Germany achieve greater political power and trace the echoes of his legacy into the 20th century under Chancellor Helmut Kohl. x
    • 16
      Soviet Bloc: Conformity and Resistance
      After World War II, the Allied powers were divided by their economic policies, resulting in a divided Europe. Examine the ways Soviet Russia dominated the nations of Eastern Europe, bringing them under the umbrella of authoritarian communism, and which nations pushed back against this takeover. In contrast, also look at the policies and institutions put in place by the Western allies to rebuild Europe. x
    • 17
      Two Germanies: A Laboratory in Economics
      The post-war occupation of Germany by four separate powers—and the difficult question of how to avoid the problems that stemmed from the Treaty of Versailles just a few decades earlier—created a division that would dominate Europe for more than four decades. It also created a unique opportunity for direct comparison between communist and capitalist enterprise, which you will take advantage of here. x
    • 18
      The Soviet Union's Fatal Failure to Reform
      Despite attempts by some Soviet leaders in the mid-to-late 20th century, Russia was never able to successfully reform the oppressive and increasingly inefficient Soviet communist system. Professor Stuart shows how the authoritarian government encouraged dysfunctional behavior in production and why the resulting scarcity of decent goods and services ultimately became unsupportable. x
    • 19
      “Blinkered and Bankrupt” in Eastern Europe
      In retrospect, it would seem that communism in Eastern Europe was doomed to fail. However, when the communist governments began to collapse in the 1980s, it took many people in the West by surprise. Trace the ways Soviet communism's failures were replicated over and over again in the Eastern Bloc nations, with nearly the same results for each of them. x
    • 20
      From Chairman Mao to the Capitalist Roaders
      Professor Stuart turns his attention to China, focusing on the 20th-century influence of Soviet communism under leaders like Mao Zedong. Look at the ways China was shaped by its earlier history to be especially unprepared for industrialization on the Soviet scale and how the cultural revolution under Mao further impeded progress, eventually resulting in an overthrow of his ideas after his death. x
    • 21
      After Deng, China Privatizes and Globalizes
      How was China able to make the dramatic transformation from a nation in decline to a global economic powerhouse in just a few decades? Contrast the economic reforms under “capitalist roader” Deng Xiaoping against the earlier communist strategy under Mao, as well as against the unsuccessful attempts at similar reform in Russia under Gorbachev. Close with a look at China’s economic influence on the world stage. x
    • 22
      Asian Tigers: Wealth and State Control
      Reveal the secrets behind the remarkable transformations of the “Asian Tiger” countries of South Korea, Taiwan, and Singapore from poor countries to high-income economies in the span of 50 years. Starting with their shared features, trace their progression from authoritarian regimes to more democratic governments and compare and contrast their concentrated efforts to shape their economies. x
    • 23
      European Union: Success or Failure?
      While the European Union has been a spectacular success in its fundamental mission—preventing war between major European powers—here you will also look at the other ways it could be considered a failure. Professor Stuart presents the post-war conditions under which the EU was created and the dimensions of its economic influence, for good and ill, throughout Europe. x
    • 24
      Both Sides Now: Experiment in Slovenia
      What does the future hold for economies around the world? Using Slovenia as a model, explore some of the crucial questions concerning the evolution of world economies. Are economies becoming more similar? Or are they diverging? Is there even a clear-cut answer? The issues and debates that opened the course come full circle here; definitive answers remain elusive, but the tools provided open up a world of possibilities. x
  • American Military History: From Colonials to Counterinsurgents

    General Wesley K. Clark, Former NATO Supreme Allied Commander Europe

    Available Formats: Video Download, Audio Download, DVD, CD

    Gen. Wesley Clark explores America’s armed conflicts, from the French and Indian War in the mid 18th century to the Global War on Terrorism in the 21st, covering battles such as Gettysburg, D-Day, and Operation Desert Storm. You learn military history the military way—analyzing tactics, strategy, logistics, leadership, training, and other factors that go into winning battles and ultimately wars.

    View Lecture List (24)

    Gen. Wesley Clark explores America’s armed conflicts, from the French and Indian War in the mid 18th century to the Global War on Terrorism in the 21st, covering battles such as Gettysburg, D-Day, and Operation Desert Storm. You learn military history the military way—analyzing tactics, strategy, logistics, leadership, training, and other factors that go into winning battles and ultimately wars.

    24 Lectures  |  American Military History: From Colonials to Counterinsurgents
    Lecture Titles (24)
    • 1
      America: Forged in War
      Gen. Clark begins the course by plunging you into combat with a 25-year-old Army captain in Vietnam in 1970. He was that captain. He then turns back the clock to one of the formative conflicts in American military history, the French and Indian War of the mid 1700s, focusing on the experiences of a young colonial officer fighting for the British: Lt. Col. George Washington. x
    • 2
      George Washington Takes Command
      The French and Indian War helped unite Britain's North American colonies. When the colonies began their struggle for independence, they chose their greatest war hero, George Washington, to lead the army. Analyze Washington's brilliant defense of Boston and his disastrous defeat trying to hold New York City. Contrast British and American objectives in the Revolutionary War. x
    • 3
      Redcoats Fall to the Continental Army
      Pick up the story of the American Revolution with Washington's army in dire straits and his command in question. He revived his reputation with the famous crossing of the Delaware River to defeat the British at the Battle of Trenton. Follow the next four years of the revolution, which saw Britain's strategic advantage deteriorate, ending with their surrender at Yorktown in 1781. x
    • 4
      Andrew Jackson and the War of 1812
      Historians still debate why the United States chose to fight Britain in the War of 1812, which lasted until 1815. Survey America's grievances and ambitions, which included conquest of Canada. Study the poor strategy, command, and training that led to a strategic stalemate. The exception is the one military genius who emerged from the war: Andrew Jackson, the hero of the Battle of New Orleans. x
    • 5
      The Mexican-American War of 1846–1848
      The continental U.S. reached its present span due to the Mexican-American War, which also served as a proving ground for future commanders on both sides of the Civil War. Explore the superb strategy and tactics of generals Zachary Taylor (later elected president) and Winfield Scott. Both showed what disciplined and bold maneuvers conducted by a professional army could accomplish. x
    • 6
      Opening Volleys of the Civil War: 1861–1862
      The Civil War set the pattern for warfare in the 20th and 21st centuries—in scale, consequences, and slaughter. Cover the political events leading up to the war, the strategy devised by the Union’s initial commanding general, Winfield Scott, the chaotic First Battle of Bull Run, and developments in the western theater, which saw the emergence of a remarkable leader, Ulysses S. Grant. x
    • 7
      The Civil War's Main Front: 1862
      Trace the ebb and flow of battle in the eastern theater, as President Lincoln promoted and fired a succession of top commanders, including Gen. George McClellan. The South, too, faced instability in the top ranks, until Robert E. Lee emerged as the Rebel army’s preeminent leader, in concert with his chief lieutenant, Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson. Follow events through the bloody Battle of Antietam. x
    • 8
      Vicksburg to Gettysburg: 1862–1863
      In the summer of 1863, the Civil War reached a climax on two fronts. Study the brilliant generalship of Grant in isolating and defeating the Confederate force defending the Mississippi River fortress of Vicksburg, cutting the South in two. Then dissect Gen. George Meade's tactics that halted Lee's daring invasion of the North in a three-day battle in and around Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. x
    • 9
      Chattanooga to Appomattox: 1863–1865
      Gen. Clark narrates the dramatic endgame of the Civil War, in which Gen. William T. Sherman outmaneuvered Confederate forces in the west to take Atlanta, then marched to the sea; while Grant fought Lee across a broad swath of Virginia, finally cornering him at Appomattox, where Lee surrendered on April 9, 1865. Review the murderous toll of this, the world's first modern war. x
    • 10
      The Spanish-American War of 1898
      A generation after the Civil War, America fought a major war with Spain over its misrule of Spanish colonies, including Cuba and the Philippines. Investigate such famous battles as the naval action at Manila Bay and the Rough Riders’ assault up San Juan Heights. Also look at the insurgency that frustrated American peace efforts—a problem that resurfaced years later in Vietnam and the Middle East. x
    • 11
      American Expeditionary Forces: 1917–1918
      Survey World War I, which drastically upped the material and human cost of war. Study the causes of the conflict, the rival alliances, and the failure of Germany's opening gambit, leading to ruinous trench warfare. Then trace America's belated entry into the war and its unprecedented mobilization. Learn how Gen. John J. Pershing was chosen to command the American Expeditionary Force. x
    • 12
      John J. Pershing, the Doughboys, and France
      America joined the fight against Germany at the height of the enemy’s last make-or-break offensive. U.S. commanders faced a steep learning curve, initially using tactics that were unsuited to the new style of mechanized warfare. Discover the hard-won lessons that allowed the Yanks—affectionately known as doughboys—to break the stalemate, driving Germany to accept an armistice on November 11, 1918. x
    • 13
      From Pearl Harbor to the Battle of Midway
      Two decades after World War I, Germany was ready to fight again, supported by Japan and Italy. Focus on America's preparations for war and its reaction to Japan's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor in late 1941, followed by Germany's declaration of war against the U.S. See how the U.S. Navy halted Japanese expansion in the Pacific, fighting crucial battles in the Coral Sea and off Midway Island. x
    • 14
      War in North Africa and the South Pacific
      Consider U.S. President Franklin Roosevelt's strategic dilemma in simultaneously fighting Germany and Japan. Weigh the competing views of Army Chief of Staff George Marshall and Chief of Naval Operations Ernest King, along with the views of Allied leaders Winston Churchill and Joseph Stalin. Learn why the North Africa campaign was so vital, and spotlight continuing actions in the South Pacific. x
    • 15
      Air Power over Germany; Toward Japan by Sea
      Air power achieved strategic importance in World War II. Compare American and British bombing strategies against Germany. Also follow the Allied land offensive from North Africa to Sicily to the Italian peninsula. Then cover America's island-hopping campaign in the Pacific and the momentous Battle of the Philippine Sea, which defeated Japan's attempted naval comeback, crippling its carrier force. x
    • 16
      From Normandy to Berlin and Tokyo
      Go ashore on D-Day with the largest amphibious operation in history, tracking the Allied invasion through its breakout from the beachhead and reversals such as the Battle of the Bulge. After Germany's surrender in May 1945, follow Pacific troops to the brink of a planned invasion of Japan. Then examine the B-29 bombing campaign, which culminated in the dropping of two atomic bombs, ending the war. x
    • 17
      Korea and the Cold War
      The U.S. emerged from World War II as the most powerful nation on Earth. That status was challenged by the Soviet Union, which pushed the spread of its communist ideology. The two rival systems clashed in Korea in a war that was vicious and inconclusive. Focus on America's part in this opening shot of the Cold War and the controversial role of the U.S. commander in Korea, Douglas MacArthur. x
    • 18
      The United States Enters Vietnam
      Gen. Clark introduces the war that was his own baptism of fire, Vietnam, where he served as a young officer after graduating from West Point. In this lecture, he covers the background of the war, charting how America was drawn deeper and deeper into the conflict, and discusses Gen. William Westmoreland's initial American strategy, which proved ineffective for dealing with an insurgency. x
    • 19
      Elusive Victory in Southeast Asia
      Get a behind-the-scenes look at the new approach to winning the war in Vietnam, instituted after Gen. Creighton Abrams took over in 1968. This was the war fought by your lecturer during his tour of duty. Gen. Clark describes in vivid detail the firefight that abruptly ended that tour, and he gives a sober evaluation of how the disastrous end of the war might have been averted. x
    • 20
      American Forces in Grenada and Panama
      Explore the American military’s struggle to overcome the loss of confidence known as “Vietnam syndrome,” which was especially worrisome due to the Soviet military buildup at the time. Highlight two operations that demonstrated renewed vitality: the U.S. invasion of the Caribbean island of Grenada in 1983 and Panama in 1989–1990. Both restored democratic rule amid worsening political turmoil. x
    • 21
      Knocking Iraq Out of Kuwait
      Continue your study of America's rebuild of its war-fighting capability in the 1980s. Then see how this expertise was put to use in 1991 to eject Iraq from Kuwait, which it had invaded the previous year. With Gen. Norman Schwarzkopf in command, U.S. and coalition forces executed a classic envelopment of the Iraqi army, in the process fighting the largest armored engagement in military history. x
    • 22
      Balkan Wars: Bosnia and Kosovo
      Now hear directly from the commander of a major military operation. Gen. Clark himself was head of NATO forces during the Kosovo War of 1998–1999, directing a 78-day bombing offensive that defeated an attempted Yugoslav takeover of newly independent Kosovo. In a conflict rife with ethnic and international tensions, Gen. Clark applied strategic lessons you’ve learned in the course. x
    • 23
      Afghanistan, Iraq, and Terrorism
      The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 sparked a U.S. military response like no other, combining overwhelming air power against the terrorist regime in Afghanistan, along with special forces and allied units on the ground. Also chart the 2003 invasion of Iraq, another success in regime change. Unfortunately, initial victory in both cases evolved into a no-win struggle with insurgents. x
    • 24
      Facing Wars Past and Future
      Probe why U.S. troops faced endless low-level warfare in Afghanistan and Iraq. For perspective, review the lessons of American military history, from the young nation's own guerilla movement during the Revolution to today's era of push-button war. Then look ahead at America's challenge for staying preeminent in military technology. Gen. Clark closes with lessons from his lifetime of service. x